Radio Spectrum Allocation Pdf 12 UPDATED
Amateur radio frequency allocation is done by national telecommunication authorities. Globally, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) oversees how much radio spectrum is set aside for amateur radio transmissions. Individual amateur stations are free to use any frequency within authorized frequency ranges; authorized bands may vary by the class of the station license.
radio spectrum allocation pdf 12
Radio amateurs use a variety of transmission modes, including Morse code, radioteletype, data, and voice. Specific frequency allocations vary from country to country and between ITU regions as specified in the current ITU HF frequency allocations for amateur radio. The list of frequency ranges is called a band allocation, which may be set by international agreements, and national regulations. The modes and types of allocations within each frequency band is called a bandplan; it may be determined by regulation, but most typically is set by agreements between amateur radio operators.
National authorities regulate amateur usage of radio bands. Some bands may not be available or may have restrictions on usage in certain countries or regions. International agreements assign amateur radio bands which differ by region.
Frequencies above 30 MHz are referred to as Very High Frequency (VHF) region and those above 300 MHz are called Ultra High Frequency (UHF). The allocated bands for amateurs are many megahertz wide, allowing for high-fidelity audio transmission modes (FM) and very fast data transmission modes that are unfeasible for the kilohertz-wide allocations in the HF bands.
Occasionally, several different ionospheric conditions allow signals to travel beyond the ordinary line-of-sight limits. Some amateurs on VHF seek to take advantage of "band openings" where natural occurrences in the atmosphere and ionosphere extend radio transmission distances well over their normal range. Many hams listen for hours hoping to take advantage of these occasional extended propagation "openings".
Some openings are caused by islands of intense ionization of the upper atmosphere known as the E Layer ionosphere. These islands of intense ionization are called "sporadic E" and result in erratic but often strong propagation characteristics on the "low[er] band" VHF radio frequencies.
Band openings are sometimes caused by a weather phenomenon known as a tropospheric "inversion", where a stagnant high pressure area causes alternating stratified layers of warm and cold air generally trapping the colder air beneath. This may make for smoggy or foggy days, but it also causes VHF and UHF radio transmissions to travel or duct along the boundaries of these warm/cold atmospheric layers. Radio signals have been known to travel hundreds, even thousands of kilometres (miles) due to these unique weather conditions.
Satellite, buried fibre optic, and terrestrial microwave access have relegated commercial use of tropo-scatter to the history books. Because of high cost and complexity this mode is usually out of reach for the average amateur radio operator.
An intense solar storm causing aurora borealis (northern lights) will also provide occasional propagation enhancement to HF-low (6-metre) band radio waves. Aurorae only occasionally affect signals on the 2 metre band. Signals are often distorted and on the lower frequencies give a curious "watery sound" to normally propagated HF signals. Peak signals usually come from the north, even if the signal originates from a station to the east or west of the receiver. This effect is most significant in the latitudes north of 45 degrees.
Amateurs have sponsored the launch of dozens of communications satellites since the 1970s. These satellites are usually known as OSCARs (Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio). Also, the ISS has amateur radio repeaters and radio location services on board.
Amateur television (ATV) is the hobby of transmitting broadcast-compatible video and audio by amateur radio. It also includes the study and building of such transmitters and receivers and the propagation between these two.
Historically, amateur stations have rarely been allowed to operate on frequencies lower than the medium-wave broadcast band, but in recent times, as the historic users of these low frequencies have been vacating the spectrum, limited space has opened up to allow for new amateur radio allocations and special experimental operations.
Since parts of the 500 kHz band are no longer used for regular maritime communications, some countries permit amateur radio radiotelegraph operations in that band. Many countries, however, continue to restrict these frequencies which were historically reserved for maritime and aviation distress calls.
The 2200 metre band is available for use in several countries, and the 2007 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-07) made it a worldwide amateur allocation. Before the introduction of the 2200 metre band in the UK in 1998, operation on the even lower frequency of 73 kHz had been allowed between 1996 and 2003.
On 60 meters, hams are restricted to only one signal per channel, and automatic operation is not permitted. In addition, the FCC continues to require that all digital transmissions be centred on the channel-centre frequencies, which the Report and Order defines as being 1.5 kHz above the suppressed carrier frequency of a transceiver operated in the upper side-band (USB) mode. As amateur radio equipment displays the carrier frequency, it is important for operators to understand correct frequency calculations for digital "sound-card" modes to ensure compliance with the channel-center requirement.
The ARRL has a .mw-parser-output cite.citationfont-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word.mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .citation:targetbackground-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133).mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon abackground:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;color:#d33.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorcolor:#d33.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#3a3;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inherit"detailed band plan" for US hams showing allocations within each band.
Under the International Telecommunication Union's rules, all amateur radio operations may only occur within 50 kilometres (31 mi) of the Earth's surface. As such, the Amateur Radio Service is not permitted to engage in satellite operations; however, a sister radio service, called the Amateur Satellite Service, exists which allows satellite operations for the same purposes as the Amateur Radio Service.
In most countries, an amateur radio license conveys operating privileges in both services, and in practice, the legal distinction between the two services is transparent to the average licensee. The primary reason the two services are separate is to limit the frequencies available for satellite operations. Due to the shared nature of the amateur radio allocations internationally, and the nature of satellites to roam worldwide, the ITU does not consider all amateur radio bands appropriate for satellite operations. Being separate from the Amateur Radio Service, the Amateur Satellite Service receives its own frequency allocations. All the allocations are within amateur radio bands, and with one exception, the allocations are the same in all three ITU regions.
Some of the allocations are limited by the ITU in what direction transmissions may be sent (EG: "Earth-to-space" or up-links only). All amateur satellite operations occur within the allocations tabled below, except for AO-7, which has an up-link from 432.125 MHz to 432.175 MHz.
[v] All allocations are subject to variation by country. For simplicity, only common allocations found internationally are listed. See a band's article for specifics.[w] HF allocation created at the 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference. These are commonly called the "WARC bands".[x] This is not mentioned in the ITU's Table of Frequency Allocations, but many individual administrations have commonly adopted this allocation under "Article 4.4".[y] This includes a currently active footnote allocation mentioned in the ITU's Table of Frequency Allocations. These allocations may only apply to a group of countries.
The frequency blocks were mostly auctioned in an abstract manner with regard to their location in the spectrum. Only the top and bottom blocks in the 3.6 GHz band were auctioned off specifically.Following the conclusion of the auction and the presentation of the award notices, the abstract blocks acquired have now been allotted specifically in accordance with the procedure detailed in the President's Chamber decision of 26 November 2018 (BK1-17/001, subsection IV.4.2).
The Award of spectrum in the 700 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1.5 GHz bands for mobile/fixed communications networks ended on June 19, 2015 after 181 auction rounds with a total revenue of 5.1 billion Euro. 350c69d7ab