Test Post 3
Please note: These post-test standards designations will not be reflected in the Grades 3-8 state assessments until full implementation of the NYS Next Generation Mathematics Learning Standards, which begins in School Year 2022-2023.
Test post 3
Please note that these post-test standards designations will not be reflected in the Grades 3-8 assessments until full implementation of the NYS Next Generation Mathematics Learning Standards, which begins in School Year 2022-2023.
Throughout the process, there were three main principles that guided the thinking of each committee and the final recommendations; two of which have to do with maintaining connections among standards, to every extent practicable. It is important to note that, at every grade level, all other standards were considered for possible designation as post-test, but were not ultimately moved because of these three guiding principles.
Effective February 7, 2022: If you're applying for a CDL for the first time or adding a Hazmat, Passenger, or School Bus endorsement for the first time, you must complete entry-level driver training (ELDT) prior to taking a CDL road test. Hazmat ELDT is required prior to taking the Hazardous Materials knowledge test. The training provider must be registered on the FMCSA Training Provider Registry. Go to the Entry Level Driver Training (ELDT) FAQ for more information about the ELDT requirement.
The road test scheduling system offers the earliest available dates and times at sites near the ZIP code you provide. Usually, the earliest date is within 3 to 5 weeks, but at peak testing periods during summer and school breaks it may be up to 10 weeks away. There are no waiting lists. Tests are almost always on weekdays (only rarely do we offer them on a Saturday).
Tests can be canceled/rescheduled or relocated due to bad weather or road construction. Before you leave for your test, check the DMV cancellations, closings, and delays webpage or call 1-518-402-2100.
After the road test, the examiner will give you instructions on how to receive your test results by visiting roadtestresults.nyrtsscheduler.com. Your results will be posted to the website after 6 p.m. on the day of your test.
This chapter discusses essential services prior to HIV testing as well as post-test messages and counselling services. Post-test services are described specifically for individuals who test HIV-negative, individuals who are diagnosed HIV-positive, individuals who receive a reactive test result but need further testing and individuals who have an inconclusive HIV status. The importance of linkages to prevention, treatment and care is explained, and innovative approaches to improve successful linkages are explored.
Certain basic services should be provided prior to testing in all settings, regardless of the approach used to deliver HTS (see Chapter 4 for description of various approaches). These services apply to all adults, couples or partners, and adolescents. Specific pre-test services for testing of children are described in Operational guidelines on HIV testing and counselling of infants, children and adolescents for service providers in the African region ( ) (46).
In addition to outreach and promotion, clear signs that direct prospective clients to testing are important. This applies to testing in health facilities, in the community and through mobile services. In certain clinic settings, where HIV testing is routinely offered, such as ANC, STI clinics and TB services, signs, printed information and posters and group health education sessions can efficiently inform pregnant women, other clients and family members that testing is offered.
Critical enablers are elements outside of health sector interventions that allow health interventions and services to be provided effectively and safely. Examples range from tolerance among the larger population toward people from key populations to laws and policies that enable young people to be tested without parental consent. While these factors are not directly the responsibility of the health sector, health-care providers and organizations delivering HTS should work with community-based organizations, legal authorities and advocacy organizations to ensure that the environment supports and enables people to learn their HIV status. For a description of critical enablers, see Chapter 4 and the Consolidated guidelines on diagnosis, prevention, care and treatment for key populations ( ) (10).
All HTS providers must remain committed to preserving confidentiality, one of the 5 Cs of HTS (see Section 1.7). Confidentiality applies not only to the test results and reports of HIV status but also to any personal information, such as information concerning sexual behaviour and the use of illegal drugs. HTS should avoid practices that can inadvertently reveal a client's test results, or HIV status, to others in the waiting room or in the health facility. Such practices might include counselling all people diagnosed HIV-positive in a special room or by a specific provider or making it obvious to others which clients will need or is receiving additional testing or lengthy post-test counselling. Lack of confidentiality discourages people from using HTS. For example, in Cambodia some sex workers refused HIV testing because the outreach setting where peer educators were providing counselling was not perceived as private (50). Health workers and others who provide HIV testing may need special training and sensitization regarding the confidentiality of medical records, particularly where key populations are concerned.
Historically, HIV counselling has been provided both before and after HIV testing. Before the introduction of RDTs, same-day results were not feasible, so counsellors included comprehensive information in the pre-test session in case the client did not return for their test results. Moreover, in the pre-treatment era pre-test counselling often focused on providing a risk assessment, preparing clients to cope with an HIV-positive diagnosis in the absence of treatment and encouraging clients to return to receive their test results.
HTS should integrate screening for TB symptoms into the information session before HIV testing, both at health facilities and in community-based testing. All clients with TB symptoms should be thoroughly investigated, and post-test counselling should discuss the outcome of this investigation. All clients diagnosed with TB should be promptly registered with the national TB programme and started on anti-TB treatment. HIV-positive clients diagnosed with active TB should be urgently started on ART, regardless of CD4 count, while those not having TB should consider TB preventive therapy (for example, isoniazid preventive therapy) as indicated in the schema in Fig. 3.1.
Health workers or trained lay providers at HIV testing facilities screen each client for the presence of cough for two weeks, fever, weight loss and night sweats or other symptoms suggestive of pulmonary or extra-pulmonary TB. This screening is an integral part of pre-test information. All symptomatic clients are systematically referred and enrolled for investigations in the same facility. This activity is routinely reported to the district, state and national levels. The following table summarizes the data for four recent years.
An increasing number of countries offer couples counselling and partner testing, which promotes mutual disclosure of HIV status and increases adoption of prevention measures, especially in the case of discordant couples (one HIV-positive partner and one HIV-negative partner). The pre-test information session for couples should not ask about past sexual behaviour or risks, as this is unnecessary and may create problems for the couple. The person conducting a pre-test information session should make clear that both testing and post-test counselling can be provided individually, if either partner prefers, and that disclosure of HIV status to the other person is not required. For more information on couples testing, see Guidance on couples HIV testing and counselling including antiretroviral therapy for treatment and prevention in serodiscordant couples ( _eng.pdf) (16).
Informed consent remains one of the essential 5Cs of testing services. It should always be obtained individually and in private by an HTS provider. In most settings verbal consent for HIV testing is sufficient. The provider must ensure that the client has learned enough about testing to give informed consent. HTS may provide information about testing and the need for consent in a group setting, such as group health education, but clients should give consent in an individual and private manner. In settings such as ANC or TB clinics, where HIV testing is routine, health workers should carefully explain how a client can decline testing and ensure that each person has a private opportunity to opt out of testing. People who are under the influence of drugs or alcohol or otherwise mentally impaired should not be tested, as they are not able to give informed consent. HTS should ensure that no one coerces clients into being tested.
Policies related to age of consent for testing can pose barriers to adolescents' access to HIV testing and other health services. While policies on age of consent for HIV testing vary among countries, ministries of health are encouraged to review these policies in light of the need to uphold adolescents' rights to make choices about their own health and well-being (with consideration for different levels of maturity and understanding). All training materials should address applicable laws and regulations regarding age of consent for HIV testing and situations in which minors may consent for themselves. All staff involved in HTS should be aware of their countries' laws and regulations. For more information see HIV and adolescents: guidance for HIV testing and counselling and care for adolescents living with HIV ( ) (54) and Adolescent HIV testing, counselling and care: implementation for health providers and planners ( -testing-treatment/page/Informed_consent_and_HIV_testing) (55). 041b061a72